After obtaining board certifications in Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine andLaboratory Medicine, between 1976 and 1980 he was appointed as a Visiting Fellow and Visiting Professor at the National Institutes of Health (USA). Between the 1980 and 1986 as Associate Professor at the University of Milan, he introduced the concept of lung rest by extracorporeal CO2 removal in acute respiratory failure and he worked on the quantitative analysis of thoracic CT, which culminated in the "baby lung" (1980's) and lung recrutability (2000's) concepts. In 1990 he was promoted to Full Professor in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Milan. He has served as Chief of the Department of Anesthesia and intensive care in Monza from 1986 until 1992 and as Chief of the Department of Anesthesia and intensive care in Milan between 1992 and 2015 in Milan.
He has previously served as President for the Italian National Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation, and Intensive Care, the European Society of Intensive Care, and the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine. His research is focused on the pathophisiology and treatment of acute respiratory failure, including prone positioning, sepsis and acid base disorders. He has published more than 300 research articles and reviews in peer reviewed journals. Since 1989 he is President of the SMART meeting, which takes place annually in Milan Italy. He is Honorary Member of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and was awarded with the Life Time Achievement Award by the American Society of Anesthesiology, the American Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care and the French Society of Intensive Care.