Herwig Gerlach is the Director of the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Management at the Vivantes Klinikum Neukoelln Hospital in Berlin, Germany. During his research fellowship at the Columbia University, New York, from 1987 until 1990, he worked on cellular mechanisms of pathogenesis of inflammation and sepsis. Since 1990, his research activities have focused on strategies on bedside laboratory monitoring of inflammatory mediators in patients with severe sepsis, and multiple trauma. From 2000 until 2006, he was Chair of the ESICM Section “Systemic Inflammation and Sepsis”, thus being involved in several international scientific projects on sepsis and septic shock. Dr. Gerlach constituted the Steering Committee of the Sepsis Survival Campaign, which is continuously working on Guidelines and Standards for the management of severe sepsis. Currently, he is President of the German Sepsis Society; finally, he is regularly involved as invited speaker in most of the large international congresses on anesthesiology and critical care medicine.